removing speakup from memory?

Karen Lewellen klewellen at
Sat Jan 24 19:36:00 UTC 2015

Why would I have a multi user system?
Oh wait I might know the answer to this one.
no.  this box was built for me, I have an admin password, and I am the 
only user.  Something I have done once from the computer itself.  No ssh 
this time, I have no idea yet if the debian configuration on the 
machine even supports 
I will be turning it on to find out.
I will want to turn it off again  when I am through, so thanks for 
all the  prospects.
While Halt seems  like the most fun, better to just try shutdown -h.

On Sat, 24 Jan 2015, Tim Chase wrote:

> On January 24, 2015, Karen Lewellen wrote:
>> what is the keystroke  for leaving Linux basically to shut down the
>> computer?
>> Unlike DOS, i understand you cannot just turn off the machine.
> Depending on how new the computer is, you can usually just hit the
> power button to initiate a shutdown (as opposed to holding it in for
> 3-5 seconds which does a hard power-off).  The press (rather than
> press-and-hold) sends a shutdown signal to the operating system.
> If you want to initiate it from the command-line or over SSH, you can
> usually use one of "halt", "reboot", or "shutdown".  You might have
> to prefix it with "sudo" because on a multi-user system, it would be
> rude to allow any old user to reboot it out from under other users.
> I usually use "halt" to power down the machine, and "reboot" to,
> well, reboot (that's rare).  The "shutdown" command allows for
> additional options like sending messages to users that are logged in,
> deferring the shutdown for a period of time, etc.
> So those are the graceful ways to shut down.
> That said, if you're running a modern vintage of Linux, it should be
> fairly robust to handling abrupt power-offs.  Mostly it boils down to
> things that your software thinks has been written to the drive but
> hasn't actually made it to the drive.  If you use a journaling
> file-system (unless you're running a REALLY old version of Linux or
> you intentionally chose EXT2 or a FAT partition type on installation,
> you've likely have a journaling file-system since it's been the
> default for years).  Also, if you have external drives like a USB
> drive, you'd want to make sure that either it's set to write
> synchronously or that you properly unmount it since it's usually a
> FAT file-system which can lose data.
> And if you're booting off a live CD, doing all your work on the
> internet, and not actually saving anything locally?  Feel free to
> unceremoniously rip the cord from the wall since there's nothing that
> won't be restored on a fresh boot.  Though I still usually just do a
> regular shutdown out of habit. (grins)
> -tim

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