removing speakup from memory?

Karen Lewellen klewellen at
Sun Jan 25 00:36:55 UTC 2015

why would the system create elements tied to those not actually using the 
Forgive my lack of information here, but would that not be a security 
If they were not created by me, who would create them?
I have no means for typing that command, but I am curious about the 

On Sat, 24 Jan 2015, John G. Heim wrote:

> Multi-user just means that each process  is owned by a user.  Some user ID is 
> tied to each process. Most of the processes are owned by users you probably 
> didn't create directly.   Examine the /etc/passwd file to see all the users 
> on your system.
> On 01/24/2015 01:36 PM, Karen Lewellen wrote:
>>  Hi,
>>  Why would I have a multi user system?
>>  Oh wait I might know the answer to this one.
>>  no.  this box was built for me, I have an admin password, and I am the
>>  only user.  Something I have done once from the computer itself.  No ssh
>>  this time, I have no idea yet if the debian configuration on the machine
>>  even supports dsl.
>>  I will be turning it on to find out.
>>  I will want to turn it off again  when I am through, so thanks for all
>>  the  prospects.
>>  While Halt seems  like the most fun, better to just try shutdown -h.
>>  Thanks,
>>  Karen
>>  On Sat, 24 Jan 2015, Tim Chase wrote:
>> >  On January 24, 2015, Karen Lewellen wrote:
>> > >  what is the keystroke  for leaving Linux basically to shut down the
>> > >  computer?
>> > >  Unlike DOS, i understand you cannot just turn off the machine.
>> > 
>> >  Depending on how new the computer is, you can usually just hit the
>> >  power button to initiate a shutdown (as opposed to holding it in for
>> >  3-5 seconds which does a hard power-off).  The press (rather than
>> >  press-and-hold) sends a shutdown signal to the operating system.
>> > 
>> >  If you want to initiate it from the command-line or over SSH, you can
>> >  usually use one of "halt", "reboot", or "shutdown".  You might have
>> >  to prefix it with "sudo" because on a multi-user system, it would be
>> >  rude to allow any old user to reboot it out from under other users.
>> >  I usually use "halt" to power down the machine, and "reboot" to,
>> >  well, reboot (that's rare).  The "shutdown" command allows for
>> >  additional options like sending messages to users that are logged in,
>> >  deferring the shutdown for a period of time, etc.
>> > 
>> >  So those are the graceful ways to shut down.
>> > 
>> >  That said, if you're running a modern vintage of Linux, it should be
>> >  fairly robust to handling abrupt power-offs.  Mostly it boils down to
>> >  things that your software thinks has been written to the drive but
>> >  hasn't actually made it to the drive.  If you use a journaling
>> >  file-system (unless you're running a REALLY old version of Linux or
>> >  you intentionally chose EXT2 or a FAT partition type on installation,
>> >  you've likely have a journaling file-system since it's been the
>> >  default for years).  Also, if you have external drives like a USB
>> >  drive, you'd want to make sure that either it's set to write
>> >  synchronously or that you properly unmount it since it's usually a
>> >  FAT file-system which can lose data.
>> > 
>> >  And if you're booting off a live CD, doing all your work on the
>> >  internet, and not actually saving anything locally?  Feel free to
>> >  unceremoniously rip the cord from the wall since there's nothing that
>> >  won't be restored on a fresh boot.  Though I still usually just do a
>> >  regular shutdown out of habit. (grins)
>> > 
>> >  -tim
>> > 
>> > 
>> > 
>> > 
>> > 
>> > 
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