removing speakup from memory?
klewellen at shellworld.net
Sun Jan 25 00:36:55 UTC 2015
why would the system create elements tied to those not actually using the
Forgive my lack of information here, but would that not be a security
If they were not created by me, who would create them?
I have no means for typing that command, but I am curious about the
On Sat, 24 Jan 2015, John G. Heim wrote:
> Multi-user just means that each process is owned by a user. Some user ID is
> tied to each process. Most of the processes are owned by users you probably
> didn't create directly. Examine the /etc/passwd file to see all the users
> on your system.
> On 01/24/2015 01:36 PM, Karen Lewellen wrote:
>> Why would I have a multi user system?
>> Oh wait I might know the answer to this one.
>> no. this box was built for me, I have an admin password, and I am the
>> only user. Something I have done once from the computer itself. No ssh
>> this time, I have no idea yet if the debian configuration on the machine
>> even supports dsl.
>> I will be turning it on to find out.
>> I will want to turn it off again when I am through, so thanks for all
>> the prospects.
>> While Halt seems like the most fun, better to just try shutdown -h.
>> On Sat, 24 Jan 2015, Tim Chase wrote:
>> > On January 24, 2015, Karen Lewellen wrote:
>> > > what is the keystroke for leaving Linux basically to shut down the
>> > > computer?
>> > > Unlike DOS, i understand you cannot just turn off the machine.
>> > Depending on how new the computer is, you can usually just hit the
>> > power button to initiate a shutdown (as opposed to holding it in for
>> > 3-5 seconds which does a hard power-off). The press (rather than
>> > press-and-hold) sends a shutdown signal to the operating system.
>> > If you want to initiate it from the command-line or over SSH, you can
>> > usually use one of "halt", "reboot", or "shutdown". You might have
>> > to prefix it with "sudo" because on a multi-user system, it would be
>> > rude to allow any old user to reboot it out from under other users.
>> > I usually use "halt" to power down the machine, and "reboot" to,
>> > well, reboot (that's rare). The "shutdown" command allows for
>> > additional options like sending messages to users that are logged in,
>> > deferring the shutdown for a period of time, etc.
>> > So those are the graceful ways to shut down.
>> > That said, if you're running a modern vintage of Linux, it should be
>> > fairly robust to handling abrupt power-offs. Mostly it boils down to
>> > things that your software thinks has been written to the drive but
>> > hasn't actually made it to the drive. If you use a journaling
>> > file-system (unless you're running a REALLY old version of Linux or
>> > you intentionally chose EXT2 or a FAT partition type on installation,
>> > you've likely have a journaling file-system since it's been the
>> > default for years). Also, if you have external drives like a USB
>> > drive, you'd want to make sure that either it's set to write
>> > synchronously or that you properly unmount it since it's usually a
>> > FAT file-system which can lose data.
>> > And if you're booting off a live CD, doing all your work on the
>> > internet, and not actually saving anything locally? Feel free to
>> > unceremoniously rip the cord from the wall since there's nothing that
>> > won't be restored on a fresh boot. Though I still usually just do a
>> > regular shutdown out of habit. (grins)
>> > -tim
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