removing speakup from memory?

John G. Heim jheim at
Sun Jan 25 00:01:51 UTC 2015

Multi-user just means that each process  is owned by a user.  Some user 
ID is tied to each process. Most of the processes are owned by users you 
probably didn't create directly.   Examine the /etc/passwd file to see 
all the users on your system.

On 01/24/2015 01:36 PM, Karen Lewellen wrote:
> Hi,
> Why would I have a multi user system?
> Oh wait I might know the answer to this one.
> no.  this box was built for me, I have an admin password, and I am the
> only user.  Something I have done once from the computer itself.  No ssh
> this time, I have no idea yet if the debian configuration on the machine
> even supports dsl.
> I will be turning it on to find out.
> I will want to turn it off again  when I am through, so thanks for all
> the  prospects.
> While Halt seems  like the most fun, better to just try shutdown -h.
> Thanks,
> Karen
> On Sat, 24 Jan 2015, Tim Chase wrote:
>> On January 24, 2015, Karen Lewellen wrote:
>>> what is the keystroke  for leaving Linux basically to shut down the
>>> computer?
>>> Unlike DOS, i understand you cannot just turn off the machine.
>> Depending on how new the computer is, you can usually just hit the
>> power button to initiate a shutdown (as opposed to holding it in for
>> 3-5 seconds which does a hard power-off).  The press (rather than
>> press-and-hold) sends a shutdown signal to the operating system.
>> If you want to initiate it from the command-line or over SSH, you can
>> usually use one of "halt", "reboot", or "shutdown".  You might have
>> to prefix it with "sudo" because on a multi-user system, it would be
>> rude to allow any old user to reboot it out from under other users.
>> I usually use "halt" to power down the machine, and "reboot" to,
>> well, reboot (that's rare).  The "shutdown" command allows for
>> additional options like sending messages to users that are logged in,
>> deferring the shutdown for a period of time, etc.
>> So those are the graceful ways to shut down.
>> That said, if you're running a modern vintage of Linux, it should be
>> fairly robust to handling abrupt power-offs.  Mostly it boils down to
>> things that your software thinks has been written to the drive but
>> hasn't actually made it to the drive.  If you use a journaling
>> file-system (unless you're running a REALLY old version of Linux or
>> you intentionally chose EXT2 or a FAT partition type on installation,
>> you've likely have a journaling file-system since it's been the
>> default for years).  Also, if you have external drives like a USB
>> drive, you'd want to make sure that either it's set to write
>> synchronously or that you properly unmount it since it's usually a
>> FAT file-system which can lose data.
>> And if you're booting off a live CD, doing all your work on the
>> internet, and not actually saving anything locally?  Feel free to
>> unceremoniously rip the cord from the wall since there's nothing that
>> won't be restored on a fresh boot.  Though I still usually just do a
>> regular shutdown out of habit. (grins)
>> -tim
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